The entrepreneur, according to French economist J.B. Say, “is a person who shifts economic resources out of an area of lower and into an area of higher productivity and yield.” But Say’s definition does not tell us who this entrepreneur is. Some define the entrepreneur simply as one who starts his or her own new and small business. For our purposes, we will define the entrepreneur as a person who takes the necessary risks to organize and manage a business and receives the financial profits and nonmonetary rewards.
The man who opens a small pizza restaurant is in business, but is he an entrepreneur? He took a risk and did something, but did he shift resources or start the business? If the answer is yes, then he is considered as an entrepreneur. Ray Kroc is an example of an entrepreneur because he founded and established McDonald’s. His hamburgers were not a new idea, but he applied new techniques, resource allocations, and organizational methods in his venture. Ray Kroc upgraded the productivity and yield from the resources applied to create his fast-food chain. This is what entrepreneurs do; this is what entrepreneurship means.
Many of the sharp, black-and-white contrasts between the entrepreneur and the professional have faded to gray color. Formerly, professionals such as doctors, lawyers, dentists, and accountants were not supposed to be entrepreneurial, aggressive or market oriented. They were “above” the market-driven world. Entrepreneurs, on the other hand, were the mavericks of society. They were risk-takers who aggressively sought to make something happen. Long hours were about all the two worlds had in common. However, increased competition, saturated markets, and a more price-conscious public have changed the world of the professionals. Today they need to market their skills, talents and competencies. Lawyers advertise their services. Doctors specialize in one form of surgery. Accounting firms join with other businesses (e.g. consulting and law) to serve clients.
Entrepreneurs exhibit many different behaviors; searching for a specific personality pattern is very difficult. Some entrepreneurs are quiet, introverted, and analytical. On the other hand, some are brash, extroverted, and very emotional. Many of them share some qualities. Viewing change as the norm, entrepreneurs usually search for it, respond to it, and treat it as an opportunity. An entrepreneur such as Ray Kroc of McDonald’s is able to take resources and shift them to meet a need. Making the decision to shift resources works better if a person is creative, experienced, and confident.
1. According to the first paragraph, who can be regarded as an entrepreneur?
A. The CEO of a big company
B. The owner of a profitable restaurant
C. A man who started a new kind of business
D. A successful salesman.
2. According to the text, the professionals _______________.
A. are quite different from entrepreneurs even now
B. were considered to be enterprising and market-centered
C. were price-conscious
D. have to advertise themselves nowadays
3. From the text, we learn that _______________.
A. an entrepreneur should be very extroverted
B. an entrepreneur should be quick to seize opportunities
C. change is not norm in an entrepreneur’s eyes
D. the French economist J. B. Say is the first person who gave the definition of “entrepreneur”
4. The purpose of the author in writing the passage is to _______________.
A. complete the definition of entrepreneur
B. tell the readers what is entrepreneur and the main characteristics of entrepreneurs
C. show what kind of people can become entrepreneurs
D. illustrate why Ray Kroc can become an entrepreneur
5. What will most possibly follow the text?
A. An example of how an entrepreneur operates
B. Another theory about entrepreneurship
C. The bad effects of entrepreneurs
D. The good effects of entrepreneurs
As we have seen, the focus of medical care in our society has been shifting from curing disease to preventing disease — especially in terms of changing our many unhealthy behaviors, such as poor eating habits, smoking and failure to exercise. The line of thought involved in this shift can be pursued further. Imagine a person who is about the right weight, but does not eat very nutritious food, who feels OK but exercises only occasionally, who goes to work every day, but is not an outstanding worker, who drinks a few beers at home most nights but does not drive while drunk, and who has no chest pains or abnormal blood counts, but sleeps a lot and often feels tired. This person is not ill. He may not even be at risk for any particular disease. But we can imagine that this person could be a lot healthier.
The field of medicine has not traditionally distinguished between someone who is merely “not ill” and someone who is in excellent health and pays attention to the body’s special needs. Both types have simply been called “well”. In recent years, however, some health specialists have begun to apply the terms “well” and “wellness” only to those who are actively striving to maintain and improve their health. People who are well concerned with nutrition and exercise, and they make a point of monitoring their body’s condition. Most importantly, perhaps, people who are well take active responsibility for all matters related to their health. Even people who have a physical disease or handicap may be “well”, in this new scene, if they make an effort to maintain the best possible health they can in face of their physical limitations. “Wellness” may perhaps best be viewed not as a state that people can achieve, but as an ideal that people can strive for. People who are well are likely to be better able to resist disease and to fight disease when it strikes. And by focusing attention on healthy ways of living, the concept of wellness can have a beneficial impact on the ways in which people face the challenges of daily life.
6. Today medical care is placing more stress on _______________.
A. keeping people in a healthy physical condition
B. monitoring patients’ body functions
C. removing people’s bad living habits
D. ensuring people’s psychological well-being
7. In the first paragraph, people are reminded that _______________.
A. good health is more than not being ill
B. drinking, even if not to excess, could be harmful
C. regular health checks are essential to keeping fit
D. prevention is more difficult than cure
8. Traditionally, a person is considered “well” if he _______________.
A. does not have any unhealthy living habits
B. does not have any physical handicaps
C. is able to handle his daily routines
D. is free from any kind of disease
9. According to the author, the true meaning of “wellness” is for people _______________.
A. to best satisfy their body’s special needs
B. to strive to maintain the best possible health
C. to meet the strictest standards of body health
D. to keep a proper balance between work and leisure
10. According to what the author advocates, which of the following groups of people would be considered healthy?
A. People who have strong muscles as well as slim figures
B. People who are not presently experiencing any symptoms of disease
C. People who try to be as healthy as possible, regardless of their limitations
D. People who can recover from illness even without seeking medical care