Pretty in pink: adult women do not remember being so obsessed with the color, yet it is pervasive in our young girls’ lives. It is not that pink is intrinsically bad, but it is a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fuses girls’ identity to appearance. Then it presents that connection, even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence. Looking around, despaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls’ lives and interests.
Girls’ attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, butaccording to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it’s not. Children were not color-coded at all until the early 20th century: in the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them. What’s more, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses. When nursery colors were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine color, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, symbolised femininity. It was not until the mid-1980s, when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children’s marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem innately attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few critical years.
I had not realised how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what is natural to kids, including our core beliefs about their psychological development. Take the toddler. I assumed that phase was something experts developed after years of research into children’s behavior: wrong. Turns out, according to Daniel Cook, a historian of childhood consumerism, it was popularised as a marketing gimmick by clothing manufacturers in the 1930s.
Trade publications counseled department stores that, in order to increase sales, they should create a “third stepping stone” between infant wear and older kids’ clothes. It was only after “toddler” became a common shoppers’ term that it evolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting kids, or adults, into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to boost profits. And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to magnify gender differences — or invent them where they did not previously exist.
1. By saying “it is ... the rainbow” (line 2, Para 1), the author means pink _______________.
A. should not be the sole representation of girlhood
B. should not be associated with girls’ innocence
C. cannot explain girls’ lack of imagination
D. cannot influence girls’ lives and interests
2. According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is true of colors?
A. Colors are encoded in girls’ DNA
B. Blue used to be regarded as the color for girls
C. Pink used to be a neutral color in symbolizing genders
D. White is preferred by babies
3. The author suggests that our perception of children’s psychological devotement was much influenced by _______________.
A. the marketing of products for children
B. the observation of children’s nature
C. researches into children’s behavior
D. studies of childhood consumption
4. We may learn from Paragraph 4 that department stores were advised _______________.
A. focus on infant wear and older kids’ clothes
B. attach equal importance to different genders
C. classify consumers into smaller groups
D. create some common shoppers’ terms
5. It can be concluded that girls’ attraction to pink seems to be _______________.
A. clearly explained by their inborn tendency
B. fully understood by clothing manufacturers
C. mainly imposed by profit-driven businessmen
D. well interpreted by psychological experts
When the leaders of the new economy say they’re not in it for the money, that’s not just bad for business. It’s bad for everyone. Some of the pioneers of the new economy are saying very strange things. These moguls of modern-day capitalism solemnly deny that they are engaged in business for the purpose of making money.
What’s going on here? Adam Smith, the founding father of capitalism, presumed that people engaged in commercial activity for the purpose of economic gain. Have capitalism’s most successful practitioners evolved beyond such base intentions? Are we to infer that the world’s largest wealth-creation scheme is being driven largely by nonprofit motives?
Not really. New-economy tycoons still like to make money. They simply want to make clear that they are also driven by higher motives. And this trend in pursuit of higher things is spreading through the business world. A recent editorial in the Red Herring posited business as an expression of the highest human capacities: “Money comes to those who do it for love.” Such talk has become so common that we have to remind ourselves that it is a fairly recent innovation. You probably don’t have the time to review the immense sociological literature on the attitudes of workers in the early and middle part of the 20th century. A single book, Studs Terkel’s Working, should be enough to make the point, or perhaps just a brief talk with some old guys about their work philosophy. You won’t hear a lot of mush about saving the world or finding nirvana in the workplace. To these people, today’s rhetoric about meaning in the workplace must sound absurd.
The attempt to find higher purpose and meaning in work is likely to fail. In the few cases where it does not, it will probably fall short of our expectations. Modern technological capitalism, for all its vitality and efficiency, cannot supply on its own meaning to life. This isn’t just a philosophical matter. When we seek meaning in work at the expense of the institutions society has built specifically to contain meaning — the arts, our families, the church and so on — we risk a great deal. We may not merely disappoint ourselves; we could disrupt the very prosperity the free market has provided us.
6. The traditional capitalist view is that people _______________.
A. engage in commercial activity for the purpose of economic gain
B. do the things that they do for love
C. tend to search for meaning in their lives
D. are driven largely by non-profit motives
7. The word “base” (para.2) most probably means _______________.
8. Why does the author suggest that some leaders of the new economy say they are not in business for the purpose of making money?
A. Because they want to show that they are driven by higher motives
B. Because it’s bad for business
C. Because they have evolved beyond such base intentions
D. Because they want to lower their expectations
9. It can be inferred from the text that work ______________.
A. was at its peak in the middle part of 20th century.
B. has always been a nirvana.
C. is not a great place to seek meaning.
D. is the heart of American society.
10. The author suggests that seeking meaning in the workplace may _______________.
A. disrupt important social institutions.
B. kill American economy.
C. lead to nirvana.
D. damage the free market.
Growth in emerging markets is at its lowest ebb since the aftermath of the financial crisis due to a combination of China’s fading dynamism, a sputtering performance in eastern Europe and Latin America’s slowdown.
Evidence that emerging economies are entering a new era of slower growth will fuel concerns for the global outlook as western countries continue to struggle, the oil price lurches towards a four-year low and eurozone stalwart Germany suffers from declining growth. Data from 19 large emerging economies collated by research firm Capital Economics show that industrial output in August and consumer spending in the second quarter fell to their lowest levels since 2009. Export growth in August also plunged. These trends are contributing to a sense that slower growth is becoming a permanent fixture among the world’s most dynamic group of economies. “This is the new normal,” said Neil Shearing, chief emerging markets economist at Capital Economics. “For the rest of the decade this is it. This is as good as it gets.”
Speaking last week at the International Monetary Fund’s annual meetings, Olivier Blanchard, the fund’s chief economist, said there had been “a fairly major change in the landscape” for emerging markets in the medium term.
Christine Lagarde, the IMF’s managing director, said there was “clearly a major slowdown in countries like Brazil and Russia”, pointing out that the end of quantitative easing would send shockwaves to emerging economies. “We’re going to continue to caution a lot of the emerging market economies…to just prepare themselves for a bit more volatility than we have observed over the last few months,” she said.
George Magnus, senior adviser to UBS, noted that the IMF had revised downward its forecasts for EM growth on six occasions since late 2011. Although official gross domestic product statistics for the third quarter have yet to be published, projections are bleak. China’s GDP annual growth rate in the quarter — due to be announced next week — is set to plunge to 6.8 per cent, down from 7.5 percent in the second quarter, according to Jasper McMahon of Now-Casting Economics. Brazil is on track to report GDP growth of 0.3 percent this year, down from 2.5 percent in 2013, according to Now-Casting.
Capital Economics forecasts an aggregate EM growth rate of 4.3 per cent in July, down from 4.5 per cent in June, and preliminary numbers for August suggest a further slowdown. “It looks like August is going to be the weakest month in terms of emerging markets’ GDP growth since October 2009,” Mr. Shearing said.
11. What is the passage mainly about?
A. China’s fading dynamism contributes to the world slowdown
B. World economy is in a dire situation
C. Financial crisis is still raging and the word economy is still in recession
D. Emerging markets slowdown fuels concern for global outlook
12. According to the passage, which one of the following is not the cause to the economic slump of the emerging markets?
A. The financial crisis in America shocked emerging markets
B. Economy in Latin America is decelerating
C. Eastern Europe’s economy is weak
D. China’s economy is losing vitality
13. According to paragraph 2, which one of the following is not true?
A. The slower growth in emerging economies will be temporary
B. Neil thinks that the economic situation in emerging markets will last for about ten years
C. Consumer spending is at the lowest ebb since 2009
D. The emerging economies slow down since industrial output, consumer spending and export growth have fallen
14. Emerging markets will face a more volatile economy because _______________.
A. IMF will downward its forecast for EM growth
B. quantitative easing has come to an end
C. the slower growth in emerging markets will be the new normal
D. there is clearly a major slowdown in countries like Brazil and Russia
15. What does the underlined word “bleak” in the last but one paragraph mean?
解析：本题考查语义猜测。题干的意思是“通过说‘粉色是彩虹中多么微小的一小部分’，作者认为粉色_______________”。定位至文章第一段第二行“It is not that pink is intrinsically bad, but it is a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fuses girls’ identity to appearance.”可知“这并不是说粉色本身就不好，但它只是彩虹的一小部分，尽管它可能会以某种方式庆祝少女时代，但它也不断地将女孩的身份与外表融合在一起”。but作为连词表示转折，强调其后的内容。由此可以得出，粉色并不代表女孩童年生活的全部。故本题答案为A。
解析：本题考查事实细节。题干的意思是：根据文章第二段，判断哪个是对颜色理解正确的选项？定位至文章第二段第一句话“Girls’ attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, butaccording to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it’s not.”前半部分是说“女孩对于粉色的关注看起来好像是不可避免的，不知怎么的，就跟存在于她们的基因里一样”，but出现表明对前文存在否定，排除选项A；根据第二段的第7行“pink was actually considered the more masculine color”可以得出C选项错误；根据第二段“Children were not color-coded at all until the early 20th century: in the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them.”句意为“20世纪初期前的孩子们原来根本不分颜色：在家用洗衣机问世之前的时代里，所有的婴儿都穿白色，因为要让衣服干净的唯一方法是煮沸衣服”。可知，儿童穿白色衣服属于以前的情况，并非现在的事实，D选项的时态是一般现在时，时态不符合，排除选项D；定位至文章第8行、第9行“blue symbolised femininity”可知“蓝色曾经被认为是女孩子的颜色”，符合文章题意。故本题答案为B。
解析：本题考查事实细节。题干“作者认为我们对于儿童心理发展的看法多受到什么的影响”。从原文第三段的首句“I had not realised how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what is natural to kids, including our core beliefs about their psychological development.”句意为“我之前没有意识到，我们对孩子们所固有特性的认知深受市场趋势的支配，包括我们对他们心理发展的核心看法”。这一句可以明显看出相关儿童市场及其产品在左右人们对儿童心理发展的看法上所起的重要作用。而B、C、D三项均曲解了原文的意思。故本题答案为A。
解析：本题考查事实细节。题干意为“从第4段我们可以看出，百货商店被建议_______________”。选项 A意为“关注婴儿和稍大一些的孩子的衣服”，根据第4段第1句话“Trade publications counseled department stores that, in order to increase sales, they should create a ‘third stepping stone’ between infant wear and older kids’ clothes.”句意为“贸易出版物为百货公司提供建议，为了增加销量，他们应该在婴儿服装和大孩子的衣服之间创造一种过渡性质的衣物。”而并非是要“关注两者的衣服”，排除A选项；B选项意为“把不同性别放在同等重要的地位”，此说法原文中并未提及，原文第4段只是在最后一句提到“分割市场最简便的方法之一就是来扩大性别之间的差异性”，故排除B选项；D选项意为“创造一些购买者的术语”，作者只是举出了一个“购买术语”的例子，但这不是作者的建议，真正的建议是选项C“将消费者划分为更小的群体”。故本题答案为C。
解析：本题考查事实细节。根据题干定位至第二段“the founding father of capitalism, presumed that people engage in commercial activity for the purpose of economic gain.”句意为“资本主义制度的始祖认为人们从事商业活动是为了经济利益”。A选项意为“从事经济活动的商业活动目的是经济利益”；B选项意为“为了爱做他们做的事情”；C选项意为“倾向于在生命中寻找意义”；D选项意为“主要被非营利动机驱动”。B、C、D项均不符合题意。故本题答案为A。
解析：本题考查语义猜测。根据题干定位至第二段“Have capitalism’s most successful practitioners evolved beyond such base intentions?”句意为“资本主义最成功的从业者是否超越了这种基本意图？”A选项意为“基本的、基础的”；B选项意为“光荣的”；C选项意为“奇怪的”；D选项意为“卑鄙的”。B、C、D项均不符合题意。故本题答案为A。
解析：本题考查事实细节。题干“为什么作者在文中写到新经济的一些领导人说他们不是为了赚钱而营业？”定位至第三段“They simply want to make clear that they are also driven by higher motives.”可得到A为正确答案；选项B是作者反对领导人说他们不是为了赚钱而营业的理由，与题意相反；本题答案中C为干扰项。根据选项定位至“Have capitalism’s most successful practitioners evolved beyond such base intentions?”可以看到这是一个问句，是作者的疑问，不能回答题目问题，C选项错误；选项D在文中并未提及。故本题答案为A。
解析：本题考查事实细节。定位至第三段“You probably don’t have the time to review the immense sociological literature on the attitudes of workers in the early and middle part of the 20th century.”句意为“你可能没有时间回顾关于20世纪早期和中期论述工人态度的大量的社会学文献”。可以得到A选项“峰值处在20世纪中期”错误；定位至第三段“You won’t hear a lot of mush about saving the world or finding nirvana in the workplace. To these people, today’s rhetoric about meaning in the workplace must sound absurd.”句意为“在工作场所你不会听到有关拯救世界或找到天堂的话题。对于这些人来说，现在，在工作场所找寻意义的言辞必定是荒谬的”。可知B选项错误，C选项正确。故本题答案为C。
解析：本题考查事实细节。根据题干定位至文章最后“When we seek meaning in work at the expense of the institutions society has built specifically to contain meaning — the arts, our families, the church and so on — we risk a great deal. We may not merely disappoint ourselves; we could disrupt the very prosperity the free market has provided us.”句意为“当我们在工作中寻求意义，而牺牲了社会所建立的包含艺术、家庭、教会等等的机构时，我们冒着很大的风险。我们不仅可能会使自己失望，也可能会破坏自由市场给我们带来的繁荣”。A选项意为“会破坏重要的社会机构”，符合句意；D选项意为“破坏自由市场”，原文“we could disrupt the very prosperity the free market has provided us.”句意为“我们可能破坏自由市场带来的繁荣”，说明破坏的是自由市场带来的繁荣，D选项错误；B选项意为“毁灭美国经济”；C选项意为“通往天堂”，B、C两项均不符合题意。故本题答案为A。
解析：本题考查事实细节。由题干定位至第一段“Growth in emerging markets is at its lowest ebb since the aftermath of the financial crisis sue to a combination of China’s fading dynamism, a sputtering performance in eastern Europe and Latin America’s slowdown.”句意为“新兴市场经济体的增长正处在金融危机过后的最低谷，其原因包括中国活力的减弱，东欧表现的不稳定以及拉美增长的放缓”。根据句意，B、C、D项均为新兴市场经济体增长减弱的原因。故本题答案为A。
解析：本题考查事实细节。B选项意为“尼尔认为新兴市场的经济状况将持续十年左右”。而原文中第三段“For the rest of the decade this is it. This is as good as it gets.”意为“对于接下来的十年来说，这是能达到的最佳状态”。B选项与原文不符，而A、C、D三项均能在文中找到依据。故本题答案为B。
解析：本题考查事实细节。由题干定位至第五段“pointing out that the end of quantitative easing would send shockwaves to emerging economies.”意为“量化宽松政策的结束最终将冲击到新兴经济体”。B选项意为“量化宽松政策已经结束了”，符合原文意思。故本题答案为B。
解析：本题考查语义猜测。根据题干定位至“Although official gross domestic product statistics for the third quarter have yet to be published, projections are bleak.”句意为“尽管官方公布的第三季度国内生产总值统计数据尚未公布，但前景_______________”。根据前一句瑞银资深顾问George Magnus指出，“IMF had revised downward its forecasts for EM growth on six occasions since late 2011”意为“自2011年底以来，国际货币基金组织已对其六次经济增长的预测下调了预期”，可以看出经济的不景气，后一句接着指出中国也下调了这一季度的国民生产总值增长率，因此可以推测出，bleak为“暗淡，消极的”。A、B、D三项均表达积极乐观的意思，不符合题意。故本题答案为C。